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Monopole Above Earth Ground

The monopole is used for AM (Amplitude Modulation) radio transmissions. The far-field radiation pattern in the Fraunhofer zone is distorted due to the finite conductivity of the soil, so a power absorption takes place in the ground plane reducing the radiated power.

If the E-field is plotted just over the ground as a function of position along the x or y-axis, the Sommerfeld-Norton decay of the field amplitude can be seen.

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